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Rondreis door Zuid-Namibië

3 – 17 september 2025

Brandberg

Geologische rondreis onder leiding van de Namibische/Duitse geologe Nicole Grünert-Ulrich. Zij is afgestudeerd als geohydroloog aan de Universiteit van Aken en sinds begin jaren 90 woont en werkt ze in Namibië. Ze heeft een geologisch reisboek over Namibië gepubliceerd: Namibia – fascination of Geology – A travel handbook. Iedere deelnemer die zich aanmeldt ontvangt een exemplaar van de Engelse versie. De voertaal tijdens de excursie is Engels. In 14 dagen leidt ze u door dit fascinerende land, niet alleen met oog voor de geologie en landschap, maar ook voor wildlife en  geschiedenis en bevolking. De voertaal van de excursie is Engels

Waarom deze excursie?

  • interessante geologie
  • prachtige landschappen
  • wereldberoemde wildparken

Introduction

Geologically speaking, Namibia is undoubtedly one of the most interesting countries in the world. Here the visitor finds the oldest desert, one of the largest canyons, some of the highest desert dunes and the largest iron meteorite. Besides these superlatives, Namibia offers a large diversity of lesser known, but also fascinating geological attractions. Geological features are immediately obvious and dominate the character of the country. The particularly sharp and clearly visible rock formations allow a view into a history of the earth, which reaches from the present day back to the beginning of our planet. As relics of this geological history, Namibia’s bizarre rock formations and beautiful landscapes show evidence of various important geological processes: from ongoing weathering and erosion, previous huge mountain building events and sea level changes to gigantic volcanoes and the collision of whole continents. In addition, the rocky remnants exhibit evidence of all imaginable climatic extremes, which Namibia has experienced in its history; from ice ages and sub-polar conditions to hot tropical humid climates and hot dry red deserts. Therefore, Namibia represents a unique ‘geological Eldorado’ for professional geologists as well as for the nonprofessional. Participants will all receive a copy of Nicols book “Namibia – Fascination of Geology”

 

 

Summary of the geological history of Namibia.

The geological development of Namibia dates back tot he  Middle Precambrian period, more than 2500 million years ago. At this time, the face of the earth looked completely different. Huge oceans covered the globe. The first mainland cores, cratons, lay scattered like islands in the endless water sheets.  Life was restricted to microorganisms like bacteria and algae living solely in the oceans. Oxygen, indispensable for higher organisms was missing almost entirely. Consequently, a protective ozone layer could not form, and the strong radiation of the sun hit the surface of the earth with its full force and development of life outside of water was hardly possible. Two mainlands were lying in the vicinity of southern Africa: the Kalahari Craton in the Southeast and the Congo Craton in the North. These cratons form the continental cores and are among others the prime components of the entire African continent.

Cratons of South Africa

The first mountain-building event took place between 2600 and 1800 Ma ago involving rocks called the Vaalian and lower Mokolian. The surface occurrences are, however limited. The oldest rocks have a confirmed age of 2645 million years!

In the second period of mountain building, between about 1800 to 1000 Ma ago, the formation of the middle and upper Mokolian rocks took place. These metamorphics were folded onto the cratons. Interspersed with granites and volcanics they form to day the subsurface of southern Namibia. As mountain building events occurred worldwide in the end the supercontinent Rodinia was formed.

The third evolution event began around 900 Ma. This was the start of the Damara age and very important for the development of the present landscape of Namibia. Between the two cratons the Damara Sea developed. The Adamaster Ocean, a precursor of the present Atlantic, was situated to the west and separated the cratons of Africa and South America. In the following 250 Ma the cratons plate tectonics drew the cratons nearer to each other. The oceanic crust of the narrow Damara Sea was pushed further and further under the plate of the Congo craton. Finally the three cratons finally crashed in enormous collisions. The marine sediments, former erosion products of these continents, were pressed vigourously upwards between the cratons. Numerous magmatic bodies rose deep out of the earth interior. They intruded into the piled up sediment mass. So the huge folded mountain belt of the Damara Mountains was formed. The plate tectonic processes in the west ended in the formation of the Gariep moutain belt. At present the erosional remnants of these mountains are found in many places in Namibia as mountain chains, scattered hilltops, or leveled peneplains.

Only 300 million years ago, the fourth development phase commenced in Namibia, the Karoo times. All the (worldwide) tectonic movements led to the formation of the supercontinent Gondwana on which Namibia was situated much closer to the South Pole than today and southwestern Africa was completely covered by huge inland glaciers. These Gondwana Ice Ages ended around 280 Ma when part of the giant continent drifted away from the South Pole by plate tectonic processes. The melting ice masses left huge amounts of glacial drift (moraines). The climate changes was an extreme different change. Within 100 million years, a huge, dry, hot, inner continental desert spread over the area. Where there used to be ice masses and glacial lakes, now dune fields covered the land. The petrified dune sands in central Namibia and the impressive red rocks in the west give evidence of this great climatic change.

Approximately 132 Ma ago an event started which changed the face of the country and the whole world again. What at first began with the formation of plateau basalts in NW Namibia ended with the entire breakup of the giant continent and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The formation of the Namibian coast began. The break-up of Gondwana caused further magmatic events in Namibia. In large parts of the country volcanoes formed and granite bodies arose during these Post-Karroo times. Numerous magmatic dykes were pressed out of large magma chambers and into already existing country rocks.

Another result of the separation of Africa and South America is to be seen along the western edge of Namibia. After the individual continents separated from each other, the continental edge of Southern Africa rose upwards by a tectonic equalizing (isostatic) movement, so that a kind of “bowl” was formed, the core of which is marked by the present Kalahari basin. The edge of this bowl is named the Great Escarpment, which is continuously being pushed further east into the interior by retreating erosion.

The fifth formation phase started approximately 65 M years ago, at the beginning of the Tertiary. Sediments formed in this period are called the Kalahari Group. The interim time was characterized only by erosional processes. The enormous rock layers formed in Karroo times were leveled down and disappeared completely in many regions. It is for this reason that very ancient rocks in Namibia are so well exposed for the visitor interested in geology.

Much of the erosional material ended up in the Atlantic, but some was deposited at the base of the great escarpment. The red dunes in the Kalahar basin are a typical form of this sequences. Also calcretes covering large areas nowadays are also typical for the rock formation in this time.

During a very dry circle in the climate, 20-14 M years ago, massive wind blown sand dunes were formed. These are now fossilized dunes and they form the subsurface of wide areas of the present Namib Sand Sea. Some 14 Ma ago a more humid climate occurred and the erosional and transportational power of the rivers increased whereby Tertiary gravel deposits and river terraces were formed.

Een gedetailleerd programma is nog niet beschikbaar maar een overview van het programma is hieronder beschreven.

Georeizen 2025 – Geology South Namibia

Day Date Route Program Overnight Stay Meal Basis
Day 1 Wednesday Int. Airport > Meet & Great at the Hotel Hotel Thule  –
03.09.25 Windhoek Time at own disposal
Day 2 Thursday Windhoek Tour to the Kalahari Stampriet Historical DBB
04.09.25 > Kalahari Geology of the Kalahari Group and Kalkrand Formation Farmhouse
Day 3 Friday Kalahari > Tour to the Quivertree Forest Quivertree Forest DBB
05.09.25 Quivertree Keetmanshoop Dolerite Komplex Restcamp
Day 4 Saturday Quivertree Mesosaurus Fossils Canyon Village DBB
06.09.25 > Neckartal > Fish River Tour to the Neckartal Dam and Geology
Day 5 Sunday Fish River Canyon Geology of the Fish River Canyon Canyon Village DBB
07.09.25 Geology of the Ai-Ais Basement Complex
Day 6 Monday Fish River Canyon Tour to the Orange River Norotshama Lodge BB
08.09.25 > Orange River Geology of the Karasburg Basin
Day 7 Tuesday Orange River Geology of the Orange River Op my Stoep BB
09.09.25 > Oranjemund Tour to Oranjemund at the South Atlantic Lodge in Oranjemund
Day 8 Wednesday Oranjemund Geology around Oranjemund Op my Stoep Lodge or BB
10.09.25 Orange River Delta guesthouse in Rosh Pinah
Day 9 Thursday Oranjemund Tour to Aus Klein Aus Vista DBB
11.09.25 > Aus Geology of the Nama-Plattform
Day 10 Friday Aus > Farm Aar Ediacara Fossils and Nama stratigraphy Nest Hotel BB
12.09.25 > Lüderitz Tour to Lüderitz in Lüderitz
Day 11 Saturday Lüderitz Day Tour to the Bogenfels rock Arch in the Southern Nest Hotel BB
13.09.25 > Bogenfels > Lüderitz Sperrgebiet and Geology in Lüderitz
Day 12 Sunday Lüderitz Visit to the Kolmanskop Diamond town Duwisib Guestfarm DBB
14.09.25 > Duwisib Geology of the Namib Desert and Sinclair Sequence
Day 13 Monday Duwisib Tour to the North Lake Oanob Resort BB
15.09.25 > Lake Oanob Geology along the road – Duwisib Castle
Day 14 Tuesday Lake Oanob Drive to Windhoek Hotel Thule  –
16.09.25 > Windhoek Geology along the road
Day 15 Wednesday Windhoek Visit to the Geological Museum
17.09.25 > Intern. Airport Airport transfer – Departure

 

 

 

OVERIGE INFORMATIE

Reispapieren

  • Een paspoort is vereist. Het document moet nog minimaal 6 maanden geldig zijn na vertrek uit Namibië. Een visum is niet nodig voor een verblijf van maximaal 3 maanden.

Geldzaken

  • Een fooi is niet verplicht (maar wordt wel zeer op prijs gesteld vanwege de lage lonen).

Munteenheid

  • Namibische dollar (NAD).
  • Het Namibische dollarteken is $, soms uitgebreid tot N$ ter onderscheiding van peso’s en andere dollars.
  • De Namibische dollar is gekoppeld aan de Zuid-Afrikaanse rand.
    Vaste koers: 1 NAD = 1 ZAR.

Pinpas

  • Pinpassen (zowel bankpassen als creditcards) worden geaccepteerd bij automaten met het logo dat op de pinpas staat.
  • Grote hotels, restaurants en winkels maar ook safaribedrijven en autoverhuurbedrijven accepteren creditcards, tankstations meestal niet.
  • Let op:De meeste banken zetten bankpassen voor gebruik buiten Europa standaard uit om misbruik tegen te gaan. Informeer bij je bank en laat je bankpas zo nodig activeren.

Contant geld

  • In de grote steden zijn er geldautomaten.
  • Ook als je met een bankpas geld opneemt, kun je het beste kiezen voor de keuzemogelijkheid van een creditcardaccount.
  • Wissel bij een bank, Wisselkantoren en vooral hotels wisselen doorgaans tegen een ongunstiger koers.
  • Ook de gelijkwaardige Zuid-Afrikaanse rand wordt overal geaccepteerd als betaalmiddel.
  • Zuid-Afrikaanse rands zijn gemakkelijker weer om te wisselen dan Namibische dollars.

Telefoneren

  • Internationaal toegangsnummer: 264.
  • Vanuit Nederland naar Namibië: 00 – 264 – netnummer  zonder nul – abonneenummer.
  • Vanuit Namibië naar Nederland: 00 – 31 – netnummer zonder nul – abonneenummer.

Mobiel bellen

  • Raadpleeg je provider voor de roamingkosten.

Electriciteit

  • Voltage 220 volt

Adapter

  • Stopcontacten zijn geaard en hebben drie ronde gaten.
  • Je hebt een adapter type D (India), type M (Zuid-Afrika) of een universele wereldstekker nodig.
  • Een adapter of wereldstekker is onder meer verkrijgbaar in de ANWB-winkels en via nl/webwinkel.
Belangstelling?

Heeft u wel belangstelling maar schikt de datum niet, of wilt u bijvoorbeeld met een eigen groep, klik dan hier.

REISINFORMATIE

Reisdata basis reis:

  • Heen woensdag 3 sep 2025
  • Terug woensdag 17 sep 2025

Begeleiding: 

  • Nicole Grünert-Ulrich (locale Namibisch/Duitse geologe)
  • Sjoerd Wendelaar (Georeizen representative)

Prijs:  Nog niet bekend  (ter illustratie de prijs was € 3460,- in 2022)

Inbegrepen:

  • Geologische begeleiding door Nicole Grünert – bij boeking ontvangt u een exemplaar van het boek Namibia
  • 14 overnachtingen in tweepersoons kamers, inclusief ontbijt.
  • 7 diners, de andere 7 diners zijn voor eigen rekening
  • Lokaal vervoer – inclusief airport transfer
  • Alle activiteiten zoals in de reisbeschrijving (dag-tot-dag programma)
  • Alle toegangen tot nationale parken, genoemde musea en game reserves
  • Excursiegids

Niet inbegrepen:

  • Retour vlucht  Amsterdam – Windhoek. KLM vlucht kost momenteel ( 14-5-2024) €1230.-, anderen zijn goedkoper
  • Lunch
  • Drinks
  • Additionele activiteiten, bv. vlucht over de woestijn
  • Persoonlijke uitgaven
  • reis/annuleringsverzekering,

Aantal deelnemers reis:

minimaal 15 – maximaal 20

 

*) Let op! Prijswijzigingen voorbehouden, zie verder het Reisreglement en kijk ook bij de tab Overige informatie.

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